A current settlement between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the German pharmaceutical firm Bayer guarantees hope of increasing entry to important medicines for the therapy of individuals uncovered to or contaminated by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium.
Infection with the parasite T. solium is estimated to trigger 30% of all epilepsy instances in nations the place it’s endemic, affecting largely the poorest folks and probably the most marginalized communities.
Donated praziquantel and niclosamide as a part of expanded collaboration
In a five-year settlement1 signed final 12 months, Bayer agreed to help WHO’s international programme in combating taeniasis and neurocysticercosis by way of donated praziquantel and niclosamide and to offer funding to maintain management and prevention
For greater than 15 years, Bayer has donated medicines to WHO to help the management of human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas illness. This newest collaboration for the management and therapy of T. solium an infection is opportune as WHO prepares
to launch its new street map for uncared for tropical ailments for 2021–2030.
How to request the medicines
Both praziquantel and niclosamide at the moment are accessible by way of WHO.
To request a donation, a set of varieties must be accomplished to facilitate software, overview and reporting. These are additionally anticipated to enhance coordination and integration amongst completely different programmes. The three varieties are:
- Request for chosen PC medicines (RSM) – to help nations in quantifying the variety of
tablets of the related medicines required to achieve the deliberate goal inhabitants and districts in the course of the 12 months for which medicines are requested.
- Reporting kind (RF) – to help nations in reporting annual progress on built-in and coordinated
distribution of medicines throughout ailments within the reporting 12 months in a standardized format.
- PC epidemiological knowledge reporting kind (EPIRF) – to standardize nationwide reporting of epidemiological
knowledge on taeniasis/cysticercosis. National authorities are inspired to finish this kind and submit it to WHO yearly, along with the RF.
All donations are topic to overview and/or availability of medicines. In addition, use of donated medicines should be adequately reported to WHO upon completion of therapy actions.
The experiences generated within the RSM and within the RF (SUMMARY worksheets) should be printed and signed by the NTD coordinator or a Ministry of Health consultant to formally endorse the nation’s request for these medicines and the reported annual progress
of the nationwide programme(s). The date of signature should even be included.
Once signatures have been obtained, the scanned copies of the 2 worksheets, along with the complete Excel variations of the RSM, the RF and the EPIRF, might be collectively submitted to WHO. All three duly accomplished varieties must be submitted to the WHO Country
workplace and copies emailed to:
The varieties must also be copied to the NTD focus within the respective WHO Regional Office.
The turnaround time (from submission of varieties to WHO nation workplace to the supply of the preventive chemotherapy medicines to the nationwide warehouse of the respective nations) might take as much as 6–eight months. This lead time is required for overview
and approval of the request that features order placement, manufacturing of drugs and cargo.
Data reporting and assortment at neighborhood and district ranges
Recording and amassing dependable data on using medicines (i.e. protection) at peripheral and district ranges and compiling such data on the nationwide degree is crucial for completion of the RF.
Breaking the cycle of transmission
Efforts to regulate neurocysticercosis are primarily geared toward breaking the cycle of lively transmission of the parasite. An necessary element of this technique is treating sufferers who harbour the T. solium tapeworm. This is completed by way of
massive‐scale therapy (also called preventive chemotherapy) of eligible populations. The simplest medicines at a single dose are praziquantel or niclosamide.
Over the previous few years, many endemic nations affected by cysticercosis have requested WHO to facilitate entry to high quality‐assured medicines. The present settlement, underneath the umbrella of common well being protection, permits Bayer to donate praziquantel
(“Biltricide”) and niclosamide (“Yomesan”) tablets.
Taeniasis is an intestinal an infection brought on by three species of tapeworm: Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. Humans can change into contaminated with T. saginata or T. asiatica after they eat contaminated beef meat or pig liver tissue, respectively, which has not been adequately cooked, however taeniasis as a consequence of T. saginata or T. asiatica has no main impression on human well being.
Infection with the T. solium tapeworm happens when an individual eats uncooked or undercooked, contaminated pork. People contaminated with T. solium can develop two distinct situations: taeniasis and cysticercosis.
While the grownup tapeworm within the human gut (taeniasis) doesn’t have main well being impression, people can develop cysticercosis with tapeworm larvae (cysticerci) within the muscle groups, pores and skin and eyes. When cysts develop within the mind – a situation identified
as neurocysticercosis – they’ll trigger extreme headache, blindness, convulsions and epileptic seizures. The latter may also be deadly.
Epilepsy is a public well being downside in these endemic communities, the place the affiliation with neurocysticercosis might be as much as 70% in some areas. In settings the place the illness is current, epilepsy is tough to diagnose and deal with. It additionally causes
main stigmatization, significantly amongst women and girls (the place it’s generally related to witchcraft).
1 Under the five-year settlement, Bayer will donate a complete of two.eight million tablets of niclosamide (400 mg) and 1.5 million tablets of praziquantel (600 mg) to WHO for distribution to affected nations.